Often people stop training or are afraid to start because of some kind of disease, believing that sports are only for the young and healthy.
At the same time, WHO continues insist 150-300 minutes of cardio and two strengths per week. And scientific research is stable showthat physical exercise saves from dangerous pathologies, prolongs life and helps to improve its quality in case of serious health problems.
Of course, in the presence of diseases, you need to choose the type and intensity of exercise with your doctor. And also it is worth considering that the opinions of different doctors may not coincide. If one has banned you from exercising, another may recommend a suitable training program that will help you recover faster and feel better.
Below we list the conditions in which physical activity is not only not prohibited, but also recommended.
High blood pressure
Blood pressure is considered elevated at 140/90 mm Hg. Art. If the tonometer gives such values on two separate days, they put diagnosis “hypertension”.
Because it is a serious medical condition that can harm the heart, brain, and other organs, a diagnosis can keep a person from exercising. Moreover, in the process of activity, the pressure rises, and this sometimes leads to headaches, dizziness and tinnitus.
However, if you choose the right intensity of training, training not only does no harm, but can also stop the progress of the disease and reverse the pathological processes.
For example, in hypertension watching an increase in the mass of the left ventricle and thickening of its walls, which increases the risk of heart failure and death. In one research found that in the first stage of this disease, regular exercise helps prevent changes in the ventricle. In a different experiment 4 months of cardio loads and completely reduced his weight.
Almost any workout is beneficial. affect on blood pressure – regardless of the mode, intensity, frequency of exercise, as well as gender and age of a person. However, cardio works slightly better than power.
In patients with hypertension who are not taking medication, aerobic exercise reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure averaged 7.4 and 5.8 mm Hg. Art., and for those who are helped by pills – by 2.6 and 1.8 mm Hg. Art.
Wherein decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressure by only 2 mm Hg. Art. reduces the risk of stroke by 14% and 17%, respectively, and coronary heart disease by 9 and 6%.
For mild hypertension recommend perform a combination of aerobic and strength exercises:
- Cardio – 30-60 minutes a day on a pulse of 40-60% of the maximum heart rate (HRmax).
- Strength – two to three times a week, 8-10 exercises for the main muscle groups. Two or three sets of 10-12 reps with 60-80% of the one-rep maximum (1RM).
People with the second stage of hypertension are also not prohibited from training if they are approved by a doctor. Also, before starting, you will need to undergo stress testing and receive appropriate pharmacological support.
Any exercise prohibited only under really dangerous conditions, such as:
- recent myocardial infarction;
- changes in electrocardiography;
- complete heart block;
- acute heart failure;
- unstable angina;
- uncontrolled severe hypertension (more than 180/110 mm Hg).
type 2 diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes may be afraid of physical activity because of the risk of hypoglycemia. Since increased loads lower blood sugar levels, you can not calculate and come to this state right in the middle of a session.
But if you take this into account and do not overdo it with intensity, training will only bring benefits.
Cochrane review 14 scientific studies have shown that exercise improves the body’s response to insulin, lowers blood lipids, improves sugar control, and has no side effects. Moreover, positive changes occur even without weight loss.
In analysis 12 scientific papers found that cardio was slightly more effective than strength training for lowering blood sugar, and in review 37 studies have concluded that the best health outcomes can be obtained by combining aerobic and strength training.
Moreover, it doesn’t matter what type of weight work you choose: you will work with a heavy barbell for 10–12 reps per set or perform lighter exercises for 25–30 reps.
As shown experiment in 32 people with type 2 diabetes, both types of exercise were equally effective in helping to reduce weight, build muscle, and improve glycemic control. At least if you combine them with cardio loads twice a week and exercise regularly.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, the symptoms of which include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness.
Because intense exercise causes shortness of breath, asthma sufferers may be afraid of familiar discomfort, avoid exercise, and even become disgusted with it.
At the same time, aerobic exercise help improve the condition of the heart and lungs, increase the maximum oxygen consumption and have a positive effect on the muscles of the respiratory tract.
In analysis 11 studies with data from 543 asthmatics found that 8-12 weeks of aerobic exercise—walking, light running, and other options—increased disease control and slightly improved lung function.
In another review establishedthat exercise has a positive effect on the quality of life, helps to better tolerate physical activity and has a beneficial effect on the condition of the lungs.
And in one experiment six months of cardio and strength training three times a week improved asthma control by 23% and reduced irregular breathing by 30%.
In addition, regular exercise help reduce the level of inflammation in the body, which is also maybe beneficial effect on the course of the disease.
Lower back pain
Pain in the lower back – one of the most common problems of the musculoskeletal system, which interferes with a full life and in 90% of cases does not have a specific diagnosis.
Back discomfort can cause people to stop exercising and reduce physical activity to a minimum. This is a big mistake, since exercise is one of the proven methods to improve the condition of the lower back.
AT meta-analysis 39 scientific papers noted that strength training and a series of movements aimed at developing coordination and stabilizing the lower back are most effective for chronic back pain.
In a different analysis, 89 studies concluded that cardio can also improve back health. Scientists also noted the effectiveness of stabilization exercises – holding postures and smooth movements for balance, strengthening the muscles of the body and back.
There are also studyin which eight weeks of such training significantly strengthened the extensors of the lower back and reduced the level of pain.
Moreover, exercise can help even with a herniated disc – one one of the most common causes of back problems. The hernia disrupts the normal curvature of the lower back, weakens and stiffens the muscles, and causes instability of the sacroiliac joint. And all this is accompanied by severe pain.
To restore muscle tone, you can perform a number of special stabilization movements, as well as train with weights.
In one experiment 60 patients of different ages (22–55 years old) with a hernia of four to five lumbar vertebrae completed a program to strengthen muscles and stabilize the body for a month.
The list of movements included the usual exercises with your body weight: simultaneous lifting of opposite arms and legs on all fours, glute bridge, raising arms and legs while lying on your stomach, lunges and other elements.
After four weeks of training, participants felt much less pain. And also, they began to perform better everyday tasks like climbing stairs or getting to their feet from a lying position.
If the condition allows, you can do soft and smooth exercises to relieve pain, such as tilting the pelvis back while lying on the back or contracting the gluteal muscles without moving.
When the pain ceases to be felt, you can move on to more intense movements, but it is better if, at least in the early stages of recovery, you exercise under the supervision of a rehabilitation therapist or physiotherapist.
Arthrosis, or osteoarthritis, isdisease, in which the cartilage that covers the bones of the joint and prevents them from rubbing against each other is thinned and destroyed. As a result, the joint swells, hurts and moves worse.
Arthrosis greatly complicates life. People do not understand where pain comes from, what causes it and how to deal with it. Over time, this leads to the fact that a person begins to avoid any physical activity, quits training and tries to move as little as possible in everyday life.
At the same time, suitable exercises not only protect against further cartilage destruction, but also help relieve pain, increase range of motion and functionality of an unhealthy joint.
Review studies on the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee showed that training reduces pain and improves the function of the affected joints by an average of 6%, and also increases patients’ self-confidence and their abilities.
Analysis 26 high-quality papers found that strength exercises are great for combating osteoarthritis. Weight training significantly reduces pain, enhances physical performance and improves quality of life.
In review eight scientific papers also concluded that strength training was the most effective pain reliever, at least in the short term. However, here the scientists noted that the benefit will be from aerobic movements.
Perhaps the most effective combination of different types of training. In the Big An analysis of 60 scientific papers concluded that a combination of strength and aerobic exercises with stretching gives the maximum effect for relieving pain and improving joint function.
Interview A study of 662 cancer patients from Philadelphia hospitals showed that the majority (71%) reduced their level of physical activity after diagnosis.
67% of respondents reported difficulties with motivation, 65% reported problems with maintaining discipline. Of the physical obstacles, the main ones were the feeling of fatigue (78%) and pain (71%) associated with cancer treatment.
At the same time, oncological diseases do not put an end to training. What’s more, exercise helps address the main causes of reduced physical activity.
Analysis 10 studies have shown that strength and cardio training help fight fatigue, pain, insomnia and shortness of breath.
Two more reviews of scientific papers confirmed that exercise contributes to overcoming weakness, improves physical fitness and quality of life. The participants in these studies were women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer.
Since some types of cancer require increased caution during physical activity, the specific training regimen and intensity should be chosen with a doctor, especially if you:
- diseases related to the heart or lungs;
- acute fatigue;
- balance problems.
These states do not necessarily preclude loads. For example, if you have problems with balance, you can do cardio on an exercise bike.
Exercise is probably the last thing a depressed person will think about. Meanwhile research show that physical activity is an effective method of combating this mental disorder.
Scientists are still don’t knowwhat is the positive effect of exercise. Potential mechanisms include:
- an increase in the temperature of certain areas of the brain, which has a relaxing effect;
- increased release of beta-endorphins associated with good mood and feelings of well-being;
- an increase in the number of neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (with depression, they become less);
- switching from their unhappy thoughts to the outside world;
- increased self-confidence;
- activation growth and survival of new nerve cells.
With regard to the type of training and the amount of load, research data are conflicting. For example, in meta-analysis 25 scientific papers concluded that moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise is the best.
The authors of the other two reviews concluded that the greatest effect is provided by light cardio loads in combination with strength and stretching.
Analysis of 33 scientific papers showedthat strength training works well, and those that last less than 45 minutes are best.
It is clear that for a depressed person with no experience of sports activity, even 30-40 minutes of regular physical activity can seem like an impossible task.
Therefore, to start can Enter three sessions per week for 20 minutes. Choose activities that you enjoy and work at moderate intensity to keep your heart rate between 60% and 80% of your maximum heart rate, which is enough to significantly reduce symptoms of depression.
As you get used to training, you can increase the volume of loads to the recommended norm.